Pediatric Diabetes

 Nephrolithiasis: A complication of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis
Objective To determine the frequency of nephrolithiasis as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pediatrics. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with DKA admitted to a pediatric hospital between January 2009 and July 2016. We identified patients with nephrolithiasis during admission for DKA. Results We identified 395 episodes of DKA over 7.5?years. Nephrolithiasis developed as a complication of DKA in 3 of those admissions (0.8%). All three patients with nephrolithiasis were males with new onset type 1 diabetes, aged 11 to 16.5?years. They all developed symptoms of nephrolithiasis after transition to subcutaneous insulin. One patient had subsequent worsening acidosis that required an additional 24 hours of IV insulin administration. Conclusions Nephrolithiasis is a rare complication of pediatric DKA, and should be considered in children with DKA who develop hematuria, flank pain, or suprapubic pain. Nephrolithiasis can increase insulin resistance due to increased pain and inflammation, so these patients should be monitored closely for recurrence of DKA. As patients with diabetes have increased risk of chronic kidney disease and nephrolithiasis can cause kidney injury, risk factors for nephrolithiasis should be identified and addressed to avoid subsequent kidney damage.