Pediatric Diabetes

 Ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes is a predictor of long-term glycemic control
 
Background Few studies have evaluated the impact of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diabetes onset on long-term glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective We aimed to determine any differences in long-term glycemic control between children/adolescents with T1D presenting with DKA at diabetes onset and those without. Methods This retrospective study comprised 335 patients diagnosed with T1D from September 2007 to December 2012, among which 132 (39.4%) presented with DKA. Variables compared between patients with DKA at onset and those without: yearly hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, daily insulin dose, yearly rates of severe hypoglycemia and DKA, percent of patients achieving target HbA1c levels. Results After the first year of diabetes, the mean daily insulin dose and HbA1c level were significantly higher in the group with DKA at onset (0.74?±?0.26 vs 0.69?±?0.27 units/kg/d, P?=?.049, and 7.85?±?1.13% vs 7.49?±?0.94%, P?=?.01, respectively), despite similarity of therapy (multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion), with a similar but not statistically significant trend subsequently. Mean HbA1c since onset was significantly higher in the DKA group (8.08?±?0.95% vs 7.86?±?0.95%, P?=?.025). A significantly higher percentage of patients in the group without DKA at onset achieved a mean level of HbA1c since onset within glycemic targets (32% vs 20.5%, P?=?.02). In the DKA group, the frequency of subsequent DKA episodes per diabetes years was significantly higher (P?=?.042). Conclusions DKA at diagnosis was associated with less favorable long-term glycemic control as assessed by HbA1c and the rate of DKA episodes. T1D patients presenting with DKA may therefore need stricter treatment and tight follow-up.