Pediatric Diabetes

 Comprehensive screening for monogenic diabetes in 89 Japanese children with insulin-requiring antibody-negative type 1 diabetes
 
Background Mutations in causative genes for neonatal diabetes or maturity-onset diabetes of the young have been identified in multiple patients with autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objectives We aimed to clarify the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of monogenic abnormalities among 89 children with autoantibody-negative insulin-requiring T1D. Methods Mutations in 30 genes were screened using next-generation sequencing, and copy-number alterations of 4 major causative genes were examined using multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification. We compared the clinical characteristics between mutation carriers and non-carriers. Results We identified 11 probable pathogenic substitutions (6 in INS , 2 in HNF1A , 2 in HNF4A , and 1 in HNF1B ) in 11 cases, but no copy-number abnormalities. Only 2 mutation carriers had affected parents. De novo occurrence was confirmed for 3 mutations. The non-carrier group, but not the carrier group, was enriched with susceptible HLA alleles. Mutation carriers exhibited comparable phenotypes to those of non-carriers, except for a relatively normal body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis. Conclusions This study demonstrated significant genetic overlap between autoantibody-negative T1D and monogenic diabetes. Mutations in INS and HNF genes, but not those in GCK and other monogenic diabetes genes, likely play critical roles in children with insulin-requiring T1D. This study also suggests the relatively high de novo rates of INS and HNF mutations, and the etiological link between autoimmune abnormalities and T1D in the non-carrier group. Carriers of monogenic mutations show non-specific phenotypes among all T1D cases, although they are more likely to have a normal BMI at diagnosis than non-carriers.