Pediatric Diabetes

 Metabolomics reveals new metabolic perturbations in children with type 1 diabetes
 
Objective Using an untargeted metabolomics approach we investigated the metabolome of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in comparison with healthy peers and explored the contribution of HbA1c and clinical features to the observed difference. Research Design and Methods We enrolled children with T1D aged 6-15 years, attending the pediatric diabetes clinic of University of Padova (Italy). Healthy controls were enrolled on voluntary basis and matched for age, sex, pubertal status, body mass index (BMI). We performed a liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS) on fasting urinary samples of the 2 groups. Results A total of 56 patients with T1D aged (11.4?±?2.2)?years, and 30 healthy controls (10.7?±?2.8)?years were enrolled. We identified 59 urinary metabolites having a higher level in children with T1D, mainly represented by gluco- and mineralcorticoids, phenylalanine and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenine), small peptides, glycerophospholipids, fatty acids, and gut bacterial products. We did not find any association between HbA1c, pubertal status, disease duration, and metabolome profile within the case group. Conclusions T1D profoundly disrupts the metabolome of pediatric patients. The excess of cortisol and aldosterone may contribute to the development of macrovascular complications in adulthood, while the increase of tryptophan derivates may have a role in neuronal damage associated to hyperglycemia. Determinants of such findings, other than HbA1c, should be explored.