Pediatric Diabetes

 Dietary sodium intake relates to vascular health in children with type 1 diabetes
Background and Objective Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have vascular dysfunction and frequently struggle to adhere to dietary recommendations. Limited data exist for the vascular consequences of poor diet quality in children. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary components and vascular function in children with T1D. Methods Cross-sectional study including 90 children (13.6 [3.5] years, 41 boys) with T1D. They had evaluation of dietary micro and macronutrients (Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey), vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function (flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate mediated dilatation [GTN], respectively), clinical and biochemical variables. Results Children had a sodium intake of 3.013 (0.76) (mean [SD]) g/day. Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction, as measured by GTN, related to higher daily sodium intake (r = ?0.31, P = .003), independent of the inverse relationships between GTN and total energy (r = ?0.30, P = .005) and fat intake (r = ?0.28, P = .007). Multiregression model showed that an increase in 1 g of daily sodium intake was independently associated with a deterioration of 3 percentage units in GTN (95% CI ?4.3, ?0.9; P = .003). There was an association between sodium intake and systolic blood pressure after adjustment for age and gender (regression coefficient 2.4; 95% CI 0.5, 4.3; P = .01). Conclusions High dietary sodium intake in children with T1D is common and relates to vascular dysfunction, independently of other dietary intake, blood pressure, and glycemic control.