Pediatric Diabetes

 Systematic review of publicity interventions to increase awareness amongst healthcare professionals and the public to promote earlier diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young people
Background Children with new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at risk of developing the life-threatening condition ketoacidosis if they have a delayed diagnosis. The rate of children presenting in ketoacidosis remains high in a number of countries worldwide. To ensure interventions to raise awareness of symptoms are effective a systematic review was conducted to evaluate previous publicity campaigns. Methods A range of databases was searched using search terms relating to T1D, publicity campaigns, and symptom awareness. Identified articles were checked against the inclusion criteria, ensuring interventions were designed to target individuals prior to diagnosis of T1D. Papers were independently assessed under the criteria specified within the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Results The initial search retrieved 1537 papers and following screening 20 were identified for full consideration. Thirteen did not meet the inclusion criteria, leaving 7 to be assessed. Of these 7, 2 observational case-control studies reported a reduction in the rate of ketoacidosis following a publicity campaign using posters and providing glucose testing equipment to primary healthcare professionals. Four observational cohort studies, utilized posters, and media campaigns; 2 reported a reduction in the rate of ketoacidosis and 2 reported no difference following their interventions. A feasibility study, not designed to evaluate effectiveness, reported some anecdotal evidence of a more timely diagnosis. Conclusion Due to the methodological limitations of the studies identified, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion on the effectiveness of the interventions reported.