Pediatric Diabetes

 Psychiatric medication use before and after the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: A population-based cohort study
Background Several studies showed a bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes and psychiatric disorders in adults. Because there is limited information on the association between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and psychiatric disorders (including psychiatric medication use) in children and adolescents, we assessed frequency of use of these medications before and after the onset of T1D. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System (1999-2009). Children and adolescents (<19?years) with at least 2 insulin dispensings from community pharmacies (T1D cohort, N?=?925) were matched by age and sex (reference cohort without insulin use, N?=?3591). The 5-year prevalence of psychiatric medication use (psycholeptics [ATC N05] and psychoanaleptics [ATC N06]) before and after onset of T1D were estimated, compared, and stratified by age, sex, and medication subgroup. Results The mean age of study participants was 10.1?years and 51% were boys. The 5-year prevalence of psychiatric medication use before the index date was significantly higher in the T1D cohort than in the reference cohort (7.2% vs 4.7%, respectively; P?=?.002) with the same pattern after developing T1D (10.4% vs 7.9%, respectively; P?=?.015). In both cohorts, adolescents (15-19?years) and boys had higher prevalences of use. This increased prevalence of psychiatric medication use both before and after the index date in T1D cohort was mainly driven by an increased use of psycholeptics (predominantly anxiolytics). Conclusions Children with T1D were more likely to use psychiatric medication in the years before and after the onset of T1D which was mainly driven by psycholeptic use.