Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

 Regulatory aspects of the human hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis
 
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, differentiation and metabolism during prenatal and postnatal life. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis is optimized for these actions. Knowledge of this hormonal axis is derived from decades of experiments in animals and man, and more recently from spontaneous mutations in man and constructed mutations in mice. This review examines the HPT-axis in relation to 24 h TSH profiles in men in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including obesity, age, longevity, and primary as well as central hypothyroidism.