Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

 Functional analysis of the IGF-system in milk
The development of milk in the course of evolution is considered as a more recent step to provide the neonate with adequate amounts of energy, nutrients, and specific hormonal signals to grant for a fast and efficient rate of postnatal growth and development. Since the insulin- or the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems were evolved much earlier, it can be assumed that the functionality of the IGF-system has been integrated into the novel matrix milk containing casein and whey proteins from the beginnings.